Output Style Instructions


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ISO 690:2010(E) (Numeric Method):



Numerals in the text are presented in parentheses and refer to the information resources in the order in which they are first cited. Subsequent citation of a particular resource receive the same number as the first.



The notion of an invisible college has been explored in the sciences (3). Its absence among historians is noted by Stieg (2). It may be, as Burchard (1) points out, that they have on assistants, or are reluctant to delegate (4, 5).


References are arranged in a list in their numeric order.



Names of originators should normally be given in the form in which they appear in the preferred source, transliterated if necessary. Forenames or other secondary elements should be given after the surname, if at the beginning of the reference. For works with four or more authors, all names should be given if possible. If any names are omitted, the name of the first author shall be given followed by “et al.”.


1.      BURCHARD, J.E., 1965. How humanists use a library. In: C.F.J. OVERHAGE and J.R. HARMAN, eds. Intrex: Report on a planning conference and information transfer experiments. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 3 Sept. 1965, pp. 41-87.

2.      STEIG, M.F., 1981b. The information needs of historians. College and Research Libraries, 42(6), 549-560.

3.      CRANE, D., 1972. Invisible Colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

4.      SMITH, C., 1980. Problems of information studies in history. In: S. STONE, ed. Humanities information research, Sheffield: CRUS, pp. 27-30.

5.      CHAPMAN, J., 1981. Report to the British Library Research and Development Department [microfiche]. Birmingham: University School of History. S1/9/281